Why is Photosynthesis in trees so essential for life on Earth?

What is the fundamental processes that supports the energy for all living organisms? Why are trees so essential for life on earth? How do those trees make food for themselves? How do humans get our oxygen? Where does it come from and how was it made? 

Photo by Casey Horner on Unsplash

In biology class, we explore the answer to these questions: Photosynthesis. 

All living organisms need energy; and glucose is the main source of energy for plants, animals and humans. Glucose is produced in a complex process that requires light energy from the sun and water from the ground which is called Photosynthesis. This is the method that plants, as autotrophs, use to create their own energy to support other heterotrophs. Photosynthesis is a fundamental process for life, as it provides organisms with oxygen that they need and recycle the carbon that we produce. That is why plants are so essential for sustaining the entire ecosystem on this planet. Not only they are producers of energy, trees and plants also help to extract the carbon out of the air; which therefore can immensely help to improve our climate conditions in an era where it is the main threat to the survival of all species. 

Let’s dive deeper into how photosynthesis function in the leaves of plants. 

There are two stages of photosynthesis: the Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle. 

  1. Light Reactions is the first stage that takes place in the chloroplast (that contains thylakoids which are packages of the green pigment, chlorophyll that helps to absorb the light energy). In this stage, plants will absorb the light energy and transfer them into two types of energy forms called ATP and NADPH. The Light Reactions is when the plants use water and release oxygen as a byproduct.
  2. Calvin Cycle is the second stage that takes place in the stroma (liquid like area in the chloroplast). This stage is when the plants use the carbon dioxide that they absorb from the atmosphere to create glucose (a form of sugar that is the main source of energy for plants, animals and humans) by using the energy absorbed during Light Reactions. 
Photo by Ivan Bandura on Unsplash

Through these complex steps that takes place in the leaves of three trillions trees on this planet, humans, animals and other consumers are able to get the glucose that they need and the waste of our respiration (Carbon Dioxide) can be recycled over and over again.

Without trees, living organisms would not have the energy source that we need and the climate crisis would threaten the survival of all species on Earth. That is why trees are so valuable for all living organisms on this planet. 

The Powerful Parasites and Their Ways of Manipulating Their Host Behavior.

Check out the Animation about Parasites. All Rights to TED ED.

Have you ever wonder how are parasites capable of manipulating animals or hosts much bigger than them? I used to wonder the same, too. But after studying about it, I realize parasites have a unique and smart system to survive, reproduce by controlling its host. 

Parasites are microorganisms that live on or inside a host organism body which they are capable of not only harm but sometimes kill its host as well.  Their main survival is through transmitting itself from one host to the other. In order to do so, they need to find their own ways to manipulate their hosts by learning abut the host’s environment, food-cycle and more. 

There are many different ways to control their host’s behaviors including

1- Direct Brain Hijacking

(Example 1: Gordian Worm: Imagine its host as cricket which naturally more likely to be in dry areas rather than wet ones. However, the Gordian Worms need water to breed and mate, so when they hit the age to mate, the worms produce a protein that confuses the navigation system of the cricket which results in the confused cricket jumps into a water source. Often times, the crickets will drown and the Gordian Worms can go out to mate. Later on, their eggs will be eaten by water insects which then go out on land and will be eaten by new crickets. This is how the Gordian Worm preserves its species).

(Example 2: Rabies Parasite: These parasites often affect dogs and other mammals, traveling up their host’s nerve systems and into the brain.  This results in the inflammation in the dog’s brain which would lead to death, but before they die, the parasites would affect the aggressiveness level inside the brains, increases the virus-transmitting saliva and also making them hard to swallow. All of these effects result in the increased tendency to bite another mammal which makes it easier to pass on the viruses and parasites. 

(Example 3: Ophiocordyceps or known as the Zombie FungusTheir ideal hosts are tropical ants that normally live on treetops. Their first move to the ant is through the piercing exoskeleton which results in the ant’s convulsion that makes them fall off the tree. Then, the parasites would control the ant’s behavior which makes it wander without consciousness until the ant comes across with leaves with the perfect condition for the fungi to breed which allows the fungi to latch itself onto the leave. The ant dies and the parasite will affect its body and build a tall thin stalk on the ant’s neck which after several weeks, shoots out more spored to affect more ants. )

(Example 4: Malaria Parasite:  This parasite is an extremely dangerous kind for humans which is responsible for hundreds of millions of malaria cases every year The parasite’s hosts are mosquitos which are the spreading agents of the virus that causes malaria. The infected mosquitos tend to bite more frequently and longer. Humans who got the viruses are more attracted to mosquito bites. )

From the parasites that affect the directly to the brain (Gordian Worms), to the ones that blocks the host’s enzyme system to make them go to more preys to infect (Malaria Parasites), the ones that overdrive the immune system and increase the anxiety rates (Rabies Parasites), these parasites have powerful and effective way to manipulate species who are much bigger then them. It’s scary when the parasites can be so manipulative because we do not know what are the actions that they made us do and how much are we actually being controlled by them? 


Why Are Negative Numbers Important?

Most of us usually are more familiar with positive numbers than negative numbers, due to its frequency of use in the daily life of experiences. Most of the times, we use positive numbers to represent the quantity of something, but often forget about negative numbers. However, negative numbers have their own importance and advantages.

On a number line, positive integers are counted to the right of the integer 0 and negative integers. (Fun Fact: 0 is an integer, but is not positive nor negative)

From: Online Math Learning

Financial Purposes

Negative numbers play a huge role in this field, acting as numbers that represent loss, owing, withdrawal, stock market price that goes up or down while positive numbers represent profit, investments, deposit, etc. It also shows the difference between the value of a debit card and a credit card.

Temperature and Everyday Experiences

From: Snappy Maths

It is used to describe temperature that degrees 0-degree Celsius in different terms including weather forecasting, medical field, and many more. In addition, it is also used for measuring distances below the surface, for example: sea level, etc.

Studying about negative numbers and the ways of calculating it, is helpful for our daily basis.

For credits and more resources: visit this site


Stepping Out of Comfort Zone (Learning Adobe Photoshop)

From: Youth Employment Decade

Technology Revolution is one big change that made huge impacts on humanity that will leave tracks on this world forever. Technology is so powerful and broad, with so many sectors and fields that we can study and master. In Technology, there is a whole range of editing, from editing videos, photos, artworks, abstract concepts, digital painting to editing movies, soundtracks and more. Furthermore, there are hundreds of other skill, including programming language, building or developing the application, programming robots. Technology has a huge range of different activities for us to learn, depending on our own passions and type of creativity. However, you can also get more creative by stepping outside of your comfort zone to work on the skills that you are not familiar with. That is what I did for an independent project in my Technology and Multimedia class.

From: PCMag.com

After learning about the Python programming language, premium-pro, and video editing skills and some more skills, I want to try out new fields of technology that can allow me to learn something new and to build new types of creativity. Therefore, I chose to work on digital arts, especially drawing and painting in adobe photoshop. Learning a new skill is challenging, but since there are many helpful resources on the internet that can help a new-learner like me. Although the platform (adobe photoshop) is quite complex and advanced, there are great tutorials that I used to study the tools. I find digital art really interesting and it is fun to be able to learn something new and to create a product using a skill you never thought you would be able to have. I used to fear of learning new things, especially technology lessons that seem complex and advance. However, this course of digital art completely changed my mindset towards technology lessons. The challenges that await you when you learn something new are the resources to help you grow, to build your knowledge, expand your creativity and innovation. It opens up your mind to new concepts, ideas that you would have never imagined, it takes you to the other side of the world, not the ordinary one you are living in.

I understand why people would prefer things that are comfortable, easy and safe for them. However, I see a whole new world of opportunities and growth awaiting for people to enter, where people can grow and learn more about the world around them, what they are actually capable of when they open up their minds to new innovative ideas and lessons. There is nothing that you can’t learn, it is just the boundary of your mindset. Therefore, I would love to encourage everyone to try new things, think outside the box and try to learn different lessons, even though it is not the one you are most passionate about. You can always find something you enjoy in a new activity, a new light, a new hope, a new perspective, a whole different world of opportunities.

Here is my first digital painting that I made:

Despite this digital painting, I also learned how to edit photos that involved story-telling skill. Here is one of several art projects I have created:


បេះដូង ឬ ខួរក្បាល?​ (Heart or Brain?)

ជាទូទៅ មនុស្សយើងតែងតែត្រូវជ្រើសរើសយកផ្លូវជីវិតដើម្បីដើរដោយខ្លួនឯង មិនថាវាជាផ្លូវមួយដ៏លំបាក ពោពេញទៅដោយឧបសគ្គប៉ុណ្ណាក៏ដោយ ។ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែពេលដែលយើងជ្រើសរើសនូវផ្លូវនោះ តើអ្នកភាគច្រើនគិតពី មនោសញ្ចេតនា សេរីភាព ការស្រលាញ់ និង សុបិន្តខ្លួន ឬ អ្នកជ្រើសរើសនៅអ្វីដែលសង្គមជុំវិញខ្លួនចង់ឲ្យអ្នកដើរ? ពេលនោះ តើអ្នកនិងគិតយ៉ាងណា? 

បេះដូង​ ឬ ខួរក្បាល?

ដោយស្មេរ រស់ អេនចលលី

អរុណរះឡើងហើយ មនុស្សម្នាទាំងអស់ភ្ញាក់ពីដំណេក និង រស់នៅតាម សមាជីវោរៀងៗខ្លួន។ ពួកយើងរស់នៅរកសុីចិញ្ចឹមជីវិតដោយមិនសូវយកចិត្តទុកដាក់អំពីសុខភាពនិងខ្លួនប្រាណរបស់យើង

ខ្លាំងនោះទេពីព្រោះការសិក្សារ ការងារ និង​​ ការរកសុីផ្សេងៗដែលធ្វើឲ្យជីវិតរបស់យើង រវល់និងការងារ និង កាតព្វកិច្ចផ្សេងៗដែលត្រូវបំពេញ ។ ជារៀងរាល់ថ្ងៃ យើងមិនសូវយកចិត្តទុកដាក់និង សមទ្ធភាព ដ៏អស្ច្ារ្យដែលខួរក្បាលយើងអាចធ្វើនោះទេយើងប៊ិះនិងភ្លេចទៅហើយថាគ្រប់សកម្មភាព ដែលយើងធ្វើ ទាំងអស់សុទ្ធតែត្រូវបានបញ្ជាពីលោកប្រុសខួរក្បាលដ៏អស្ចារ្យរបស់យើង។ ចំណែកឯ អារម្មណ៏ មនោសញ្ចេតនា និង ការស្រលាញ់ ស្អប់ ការមើលថែគ្នាទៅវិញទៅមក នៅក្នុងជីវិតយើងវិញ គឺ សុទ្ធតែគេជឿថា ត្រូវបានបញ្ជាមកពីសំណាក់ កញ្ញាបេះដូងកំហូច ។ ពេលខ្លះ នាងបញ្ជាអារម្មណ៏យើង ឲ្យឈ្លក់វង្វេង ឲ្យកើតទុក្ខ សប្បាយ រំភើប តាមតែចិត្តគាត់ ។ ដូច្នោះហើយ ឥឡូវនេះ ពួកយើងនឹងចូលទៅក្នុងជីវិតប្រចាំថ្ងៃរបស់ លោក​ប្រុសខួរក្បាល និង កញ្ញាបេះដូង។

កញ្ញាបេះដូង (ខ្ញុំជាមនុស្សឧស្សាហ៏ជាងគេក្នុងមួយខ្លួនប្រាណនេះ មានតែខ្ញុំទេដែលធ្វើការ ២៤ម៉ោង លើ ២៤ម៉ោង ជារៀងរាល់ថ្ងៃ ខែ ឆ្នាំ ដើម្បីធ្វើឲ្យលំហូរឈាមក្នុងរាងកាយដំណើរការ ។ ខ្ញុំពិតជាមានមោទនភាពនិងខ្លួនឯងណាស់ ពីព្រោះខ្ញុំ ជាមនុស្សសំខាន់ ជាងគេក្នុងក្រុមហ៊ុននៃខ្លួន មនុស្សនេះ។ ខ្ញុំធ្វើការហត់ តែមិនដែលត្អូញត្អែទេ ។ អ្នកគិតមើលទៅ ពេលគេផ្សេងគេង សម្រាក នៅពេលយប់ ក្រោយពីថ្ងៃដ៏ហត់នឿយមួយ ខ្ញុំនៅតែត្រូវខំប្រឹងធ្វើការ តែខ្ញុំនៅតែស្រលាញ់ការងារខ្ញុំ ពីព្រោះក្រៅពីការលោតចុះឡើងៗដើម្បីឲ្យមានចង្វាក់បេះដូងនោះ ខ្ញុំក៏មានតួនាទីសំខាន់ដែរ គឺការបង្កើតអារម្មណ៏ មនោសញ្ចេតនាផ្សេងៗ។ ដូចជាពេលដែល នរណាម្នាក់រៀបនិងសម្រេចចិត្តអ្វី

មួយ ខ្ញុំតែងតែលើកហេតុផល មនោសញ្ចេតនាផ្សេងៗ មកឲ្យគេស្តាប់ពិចារណា។ ពេលខ្លះគេក៏ធ្វើតាមខ្ញុំ តែពេលខ្លះគេក៏ថា រឿងមនោសញ្ចេតនាពីបេះដូង ទុកមួយឡែកសិន សំខាន់

ទៅស្តាប់អនុសាសន៏របស់ លោកប្រុសខួរក្បាលវិញទៅ វាមានប្រយោជន៏ជាង។ ខ្ញុំក៏បានត្រឹមខូចចិត្ត

អង្គុយយំម្នាក់ឯងទៅ ។ ដូច្នោះហើយបានជា លោកប្រុសខួរក្បាល និង ខ្ញុំ ភាគច្រើន មិនដែលត្រូវគ្នាទាល់តែសោះ អាចថាជាសត្រូវ ក៏ថាបានដែរ។ ខ្ញុំស្អប់ណាស់ ម្នាក់ខួរក្បាល

កំហូច និង កំពូលល្បិចមួយនេះ!

លោកប្រុសខួរក្បាល: ​យី! ម្តិចមកថាឲ្យខ្ញុំដូច្នេះ! ខ្ញុំជាមនុស្សម្នាក់ដែលមានទំនួលខុសត្រូវខ្ពស់ ចេះគិតវែងឆ្ងាយ ល្អិតល្អន់ ច្បាស់លាស់ មិនគិតតែពីរឿងមនោសញ្ចេតនាស្អីគេនោះទេ។ បើសិនជា

អ្នកគ្រប់គ្នាជឿខ្ញុំនោះ ខ្ញុំជឿថា អ្នកនិងប្រាកដជាជ្រេីសរើសជម្រើសដែលត្រឹមត្រូវបំផុតហើយ ពីព្រោះ

ខ្ញុំជាមនុស្សត្រឹមត្រូវ មានហេតុផលជាក់ស្តែង​ មិនគិតពីអារម្មណ៏រញ៉េរញ៉ៃដូចកញ្ញាបេះដូងនោះឡើយ។

ខ្ញុំក៏ធ្វើការជាច្រើនម៉ោងដែរ ដល់ថ្នាក់ក្តៅខ្លួនចេញផ្សែងទៅហើយ ក៏គេនៅតែប្រើឲ្យធ្វើការ ទទួលទិន្នន័យ ជារៀងរាល់នាទី។

កញ្ញាបេះដូង ចុះលោកបងលោកប្រុសខួរក្បាលដែលមានគិតពី សេចក្តីស្រមៃពីកុមារភាព

គិតពីទំនាក់ទំនង មិត្តភាពជាមួយមិត្តភ័ក្តិ និង អត្ថន័យនៃគ្រួសារដែរឬទេ? ហេតុអ្វី គ្រាន់តែលឺគេនិយាយ

ថា ការងារមានប្រាក់ខែច្រើន តែត្រូវចាកចោល មិត្តភ័ក្តិនិង គ្រួសារ ក៏ខំប្រឹងទៅដែរ មិនគិតពីបេះដូងខ្លួនឯង​ដែល ធ្លាប់មានក្តីស្រមៃធ្វើការងារដែលខ្លួនស្រលាញ់ ពេញចិត្ត តែបែជា ឈ្លក់

វង្វេងនិងទឹកលុយ បុណ្យសក្តិនោះទៅវិញ?

លោកប្រុសខួរក្បាល ចុះកញ្ញាមានបានគិតវិញទេថា បើសិនជាគ្មានទឹកលុយ បុណ្យសក្តិ និង មុខតំណែង ទេនោះ តើជីវិតមនុស្សទៅជាយ៉ាងណា? វាមាន សេចក្តីសុខ​ និង​ សុភមង្គលដែរឬទេ? ជាពិសេស មានម្ហូបញុាំឆ្ងាញ់ៗ គេហដ្ឋានរស់នៅល្អ ដែរឬទេ? នាងដូចជាភ្លេចរឿងនេះអស់ទៅហើយទេហេ? ដូច្នេះហើយ ខ្ញុំសូមលើកទឹកចិត្តឲ្យមនុស្សគ្រប់រូប


កញ្ញាបេះដូង ទេ!​ ទេ! ជ្រើសយកខ្ញុំវិញ! ខ្ញុំជាមនុស្សដែលយល់សុខទុក្ខអ្នកដរទៃ មិនចេះកេងប្រវ័ញ្ចជនណាឡើយ។

លោកប្រុសខួរក្បាល កុំជឿគាត់!​ ជ្រើសរើសយកខ្ញុំវិញ! ដឹងតែចំណេញច្រើនតែម្តង ហើយមានលុយ ល្បីល្បាញ មានមុខមាត់ទៀត!

កញ្ញាបេះដូង តែដោយគ្មានសេរីភាព ភាពសប្បាយរីករាយ ស្រស់បំព្រង នោះឡើយ ជាពិសេស គ្មាន មនោសញ្ចេតនា និង មិត្តភ័ក្តិ ឬ គ្រួសារទៀត។

មនុស្ស ហឺយ! ខ្ញុំឈីក្បាល និង​ ហត់នឹងស្តាប់អ្នកទាំងពីទៀតណាស់! បេះដូងក៏មានន័យ ខួរក្បាលក៏មានហេតុផល។ មិនដឹងជាជឿអ្នកណាឲ្យប្រាកដទេ។ បើសិនអ្នកជាខ្ញុំ អ្នកនិងរើសយកមួយណា? មនោសញ្ចេតនា សេចក្តីស្រលាញ់ មិត្តភាព សេរីភាព ឬក៏ ទឹកលុយ បុណ្យសក្តិ មុខតំណែងខ្ពស់ និង ភាពល្បីល្បាញ? បើសិនជាអ្នករើសមួយ តើជីវិតអ្នកនិងទៅជាយ៉ាង

ណា? មានសេចក្តីសុខ ឬ ពោពេញទៅដោយភាពស្តាយក្រោយ? ពេលនេះ ឱកាសនៅនឹងមុខអ្នកហើយ

តើអ្នកនឹងចាប់យកវាឬក៏ ព្រលែងវាចោលដោយសាភាពភ័យខ្លាច និឹងរស់នៅក្នុងទីងងឹត និងតាម យដ្ឋាកម្ម? បើខ្ញុំវិញ ខ្ញុំនិង ជ្រើសរើសយក បេះដូង តែ ខ្ញុំក៏មិនភ្លេចយកខួរក្បាលដាក់ចូលក្នុងហោប៉ៅ

ដែរ ក្រែងលដើរវង្វេងផ្លូវ​។ 🙂

The Use of the Python Programming Language

This is our last round learning the Python programming language. After we have studied all of the rules and technical writing of the programming language, we have set our hands on real practice projects that are both fun, interactive and helpful for our studies.

We have been learning about lists in python for weeks, as a result, students get the opportunity to practice it in a project. For example, I have worked on a program that can randomly appoint random names and put them into different teams. This project can be used for users who want random groups when they insert the names of all the players in. As an example, I insert the name of the students of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and the program can divide them into different teams randomly.

Credit: Pen Installations

This is just a simple example of a small program that the programming language can help us to create, but there are a million of ideas and solutions that programmers can invent and program to help solve global issues in an eco-friendly way which can result in a better place to live for all of us. Our civilizations will be much more developed with advanced-technology and applications that are made from different programming languages. Technology and programming teach us how to be more innovative to create creative solutions for our world.

ការសិក្សារទាក់ទងអំពីដើមកំណើតភាសាខ្មែរ និង កវី ឬបណ្ឌិតកម្ពុជា

កុលបុត្រ កុលធីតាខ្មែរគ្រប់រូបពិតជាមានសំណាង ពីព្រោះយើងមានប្រទេសមួយដែលពោពេញទៅដោយ កិត្តិនាមល្បីល្បាញ ទាក់ទងពីវប្បធម៍ អរិយធម៍ ប្រាង្គសិលា ប្រាសាទបុរាណពេញពេញប្រទេស ។ សូម្បីតែ

នាមប្រទេសយើង​ កម្ពុជាមានន័យជ្រាលជ្រៅអនេក ។ បើយោងទៅតាមវចនានុក្រមរបស់សម្តេចសង្ឈរាជ

ជួន ណាត ពាក្យកម្ពុជា គីមានដើមកំណើតពី ពីរពាក្យ គឺ កម្ពុ និង ពាក្យ ជា ។​ ពាក្យកម្ពុ មានន័យថា មាស និង ពាក្យ ជ ឬ ជា​ មានន័យថា កំណើត ឬ​ កើត ។ ដូច្នេះ​ បានសេចក្តីថា ពាក្យថា កម្ពុជា មានន័យថា ទីដែលសម្បូរ

ទៅដោយវត្ថុមានតម្លៃដូចជារ៉ែមាស ជាដើម ។ នេះក៏អាចពន្យល់ទាក់ទងពីពាក្យដែលយើងតែងតែហៅប្រទេស

យើងថាជាដែនដី សុវណ្ណភូមិ គឺមកពីពាក្យទាំងពីរនេះបូកចូលគ្នានេះហើយ ។

យើងក៏អាចហៅប្រទេសយើងតាមនាមទាំងអស់នេះបានដែរ (កម្ពុជរដ្ឋ កម្ពុជប្រទេស ខេមរប្រទេស ឬ ខេមររដ្ឋ)។

បើនិយាយពីដើមកំណើតនៃភាសាខ្មែរវិញ អាយុកាលនៃអក្សរសាស្ត្រខ្មែរមានអាយុរាប់ពាន់ឆ្នាំមកហើយ ។ បណ្ឌិត និង កវីកម្ពុជាដ៏ល្បីល្បាញមានវត្តមាននៅលើដែនដីសុវណ្ណភូមិនេះជាយូរណាស់មកហើយ ។ កាលនៅសម័យអង្គរ បណ្ឌិត និងកវីកម្ពុជាមានដូចជា បណ្ឌិត សិវ សោម (រឿង មហាភារតៈ សិលាចារឹក – ប្រាសាទកណ្តោល)បណ្ឌិត យតិអមរ ភាវៈ(សិលាចារឹក – ភ្នំបាយ័ង្ក) ។ល។​ តមកដល់ជំនាន់ក្រោយៗ មានបណ្ឌិត និង កវីជាច្រើនទៀតដូចជា  ព្រះអង្គដួង (ចម្ប៉ាថោង រឿងកាកី ច្បាប់ស្រី មហាវេស្សន្តរ(ពាក្យកំរងកែវ) ភិក្ខុសោម (រឿង ទុំទាវ រឿង ផ្ការាំទឹករាំ) ភិរម្យង៉ុយ (ច្បាប់ល្បើកថ្មី កេរកាលថ្មី សេចក្តីរំលឹកដាស់តឿន ពាក្យកាព្យប្រដៅទូន្មាន ជនប្រុសស្រី) រួមទាំងវត្តមានកវី និង
បណ្ឌិតខ្មែរជាច្រើនទៀត ។

ដោយហេតុប្រទេសកម្ពុជាគឺជាប្រទេសដែលមានភាពរុងរឿងល្បីល្បាញខាងផ្នែកវប្បធម៏ អរិយធម៏ និងអក្សរសាស្រ្តដូច្នេះហើយ ប្រជាជនខ្មែរគ្រប់រូបគួរតែមានដួងចិត្តក្នុងការថែរក្សា គាំពា វីស័យទាំងអស់នេះឲ្យបានជារឿងរហូតទៅ ។


pH Level: Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases are important, not only in the science world, in the industrial world and other fields as well. The different ranges of acids and bases are identified as the pH (Potential of Hydrogen) level.

All though Acids and Bases might be similar in some ways, there are huge differences between them.  One of the differences is that Acid produces positive hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, making it to be able to conduct electricity because of those charged particles in the solutions.  Whereas base produces negative hydroxide ion when dissolved in water.

In the industrial world, Acids and bases are important because a variety of products contain these two. For example, sulfuric acids are used to manufacture detergent, paper, and paint. Soaps contain a type of base called Potassium Hydroxide. Bases are also found in many cleaning products, concrete or deodorants.

The Acids and Bases also plays a role to balance the pH level in our body to ensure great health. If the pH level is unbalanced, it will cause some health problems. Unbalanced pH level can cause stomach ache due to the rise of acidity. Unbalanced pH level in the brain can cause depression, moodiness, memory loss, hallucinations, anxiety, and restlessness

We can easily detect acids or base by using the indicator, which can be a red litmus. The indicator will change color according to the level of Ph that comes to contact with it. To further test and study this theory, we have done a PH test of different substances including:

  1. Lime juice
  2. Vinegar
  3. Lime Soda
  4. Water
  5. Toothpaste
  6. Baking Soda
  7. Bleach

We have used red cabbage solution as the indicator. Here is a photo we got after adding each substance into a plastic cup and what it had changed when we put the indicator in.

The photo of Substances with no Indicators (By Bopha) 
The photo of substances when Indicator is put in.

This experiment shows how substances change their property when it comes to contact with the indicator (cabbage solution). 


Carbon and the Black Snake Experiment

Carbon is an extraordinary element that can combine with itself and many other elements to create a huge range of compounds. It is a non-metal element that has four valence electrons that are involved in different chemical bonds. It is the most important element for living things. Carbon-based compounds in living things are called biochemical compounds. They make up the cells and tissues of organisms and also involves important processes to support life including making and using food to make energy. Pure Carbon exists as crystals in three forms, fullerenes, diamond and graphite. Though Carbon can form with many elements, it mostly bonds with Hydrogen to create a type of compound called Hydrocarbon.

Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons are compounds that only consist of hydrogen and carbon atoms. It mostly comes from several main sources including coal, fossil fuels, petroleum, and natural gas. The size of the hydrocarbon’s molecule can determine its property. Therefore, some hydrocarbons are gas, solid or liquid at room temperature. There are two different types of hydrocarbons: Saturated and Unsaturated. Saturated are those hydrocarbons with a single bonding between carbon atoms and Unsaturated has two or more bondings between carbon atoms. Hydrocarbons are really important to our civilization because it is used mostly as fuels and for manufacturing plastics which are major parts of the modern cities. There is a total of 8 hydrocarbons with different names and properties.

Isomers: Isomers are compounds that contain the same amount and types of molecules but they are arranged differently. They usually have somewhat different properties especially the difference in melting points.

Learning More of Carbon: The Black Snake experiment

In order to understand more about the properties of Carbon, we did an experiment called The Black Snake.


  1. Bowl
  2. Some Sand
  3. Alcohol
  4. Baking Soda
  5. Some Sugar


  1. Mix the sugar with the baking soda (put the sugar more than the baking soda)
  2. Put some sand into the bow that is wrapped with an aluminum sheet
  3. Put the mixture of sugar and the baking soda into the center of the sand.
  4. Put some alcohol around the mountain of the mixture
  5. Throw a match into the bowl and wait for the black snake to come out.




Sugar The simplest type of sugar is called glucose which contains Carbon.  
Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide is a colorless gas that forms between the bonding between Carbon and Oxygen. Carbon can burn and combine with oxygen to make Carbon Dioxide.  



Baking Soda is Sodium Bicarbonate. When combined with acid and a liquid, it produces carbon dioxide gas. Sugar also contains carbon. When we put the alcohol into the mixture of baking soda and sugar and flame it with a match, the burned carbon will produce the carbon ash that we can see as the black snake that comes out and it is pushed or  enlarged by Carbon Dioxide that produced from the reaction between carbon items in the sugar, baking soda, and alcohol. (it is the reason why cooks use baking soda to bake because when it reacts with any type of acid or liquid, it will produce carbon dioxide which enlarges the dough). In addition, the alcohol helps to produce the constant flames that heated up the mixture.


  1. https://www.quora.com/Is-baking-soda-the-same-as-corn-starch
  2. https://www.finecooking.com/article/baking-soda-and-baking-powder
  3. https://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Physical-Science-For-Middle-School/section/9.2/


Introduction to Python Programming Language

Image result for python programming language


Python is a computer language that is designed by Guido van Rossum who is a Dutch programmer.

There are a lot of different parts of Python that we need to learn. These are some of them:

Boolean: a datatype that can have the value of True and False:

Example: 1 > 6  (False)

    6 >= 9 = (False)

    1 = 1 (True)

Comparision: the statements used to compare different numbers


==  (equals)

!= (not equals)

< (less than)

<= (less than or equal to)

If statement: if the statement sets a condition, if the condition is true then do something.


If input > 100:

Print ‘You are the first customers!’

(Note: Indentation is really important in python, Every space and character should be structured in the required form)

Elif Statement: the statement that lets you set a lot more conditions than the If statement

Else Statement: the last statement in a condition

(Lessons about Loops)

For Loop: (Loop is to repeat something again and again) For loop allows you to repeat a thing over and again for a certain amount of times.

Break Statement: Just like the word sounds, Break Statements break the loops and stop it from running.

Continue: Continue stops one repetition and continues to the next one. It skips a loop when it meets a certain condition.

Range Function: Range function allows us to count in a huge range of numbers.

Applying Coding to Real Life Examples:

One of the challenges that our teacher gave us to work on is:  Give the user 3 tries to guess a number between 1 and 10 (includes 1 and 10) that the computer created randomly.

If they guess correctly within 3 tries, they win. If they don’t, they lose.

This is what my code looks like to give the user 3 tries to guess the random number from the computers:

random_number = randint(1, 10)

attempt = 0

while attempt < 3:

   guess = input(“Guess a number between 1 and 10 (included):”)

   if guess == random_number:

       print ‘You are correct! You win!’



       print ‘You are wrong. Sorry’

   attempt += 1

print “Game Over”

(By running this code, the user can put 3 inputs, and the program will tell them if it is right or wrong. If they could not get in after 3 tries, they loses)